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2013-11-08 23:15:23  来源: 意大利语 

An adverb (avverbio) is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. In English, adverbs are often formed by adding the suffix -ly to adjectives: slowly, softly, surely. Adverbs often answer the question come? (how?), quando? (when?), or dove? (where?):

Luciano agisce lentamente. (Luciano acts slowly.)

Leonardo viene tardi. (Leonardo comes late.)

Usciamo adesso. (We're leaving now.)

Ci andiamo a giugno. (We are going there in June.)

In Italian, many adverbs are formed by adding the ending -mente to the singular feminine form of the adjective.

FORMING ADVERBS IN ITALIAN

ADJECTIVE (GENERAL OR MASCULINE)

ADJECTIVE (FEMININE SINGULAR)

ADVERB

felice

felice

felicemente (happily)

lento

lenta

lentamente (slowly)

stanco

stanca

stancamente (tiredly)

If an adjective ends in -ale, -ile, or -are, the adverb is formed with the root of the adjective plus the ending -mente.

FORMING ADVERBS FROM ADJECTIVES THAT END IN -ALE, -ILE, OR -ARE

ADJECTIVE (GENERAL OR MASCULINE)

ADJECTIVAL ROOT

ADVERB

esemplare

esemplari-

esemplarmente

gentile

gentil-

gentilmente

speciale

special-

specialmente

Not all adjectives can be formed into adverbs; for example, the words postalmente and malatamente do not exist. On the other hand, not all Italian adverbs are formed from adjectives. When in doubt, check the dictionary.

ADVERBS THAT DON'T DERIVE FROM ADJECTIVES

ancora

still

attorno

around, about

bene

well

contro

against

dentro

in, inside

dietro

behind, at the back of

dopo

then, afterwards

fuori

outside

già

already

inoltre

moreover

insieme

together

male

badly

(non)...mai

never

(non)...più

no longer, not anymore

oltre

beyond

presto

soon, before long

sempre

always

sopra

above, on top

sotto

underneath, below

vicino

nearby, close by

Adverbs always precede the adjective or adverb that they modify, and they generally follow a simple verb form. For example: Beve sempre la birra. (He always drinks beer.) In sentences with compound tenses, most adverbs are placed after the past participle. For example: Sono arrivato tardi al museo. (I arrived late at the museum.) However, certain common adverbs such as già, ancora, sempre, (non)...mai, and (non)...più are inserted between the auxiliary verb and the past participle of the compound form:

Non ci sei più andata. (You don't go there anymore.)

Enzo è sempre venuto in orario. (Enzo always came on time.)

Non ho ancora finito i miei compiti. (I still hadn't finished my homework.)


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