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意大利语语法:详解反身代词

2013-11-08 23:15:07  来源: 意大利语 

What is a reflexive verb (verbo riflessivo)? A verb is reflexive when the action carried out by the subject is performed on the same subject. Not all verbs are reflexive. In order to make a verb reflexive, drop the -e of its infinitive ending and add the pronoun si. For example, pettinare (to comb) becomes pettinarsi (to comb oneself) in the reflexive. Si is an additional pronoun, known as the reflexive pronoun, which is needed when conjugating reflexive verbs.

The reflexive pronouns (i pronomi reflessivi), mi, ti, si, ci, vi, si, are identical in form to direct object pronouns, except for the third-person form si (which is the same in the singular and in the plural). The following table includes the reflexive pronouns in Italian.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

PERSON

SINGULAR

PLURAL

I

mi (myself)

ci (ourselves)

II

ti (yourself)

vi (yourselves)

III

si (himself; herself; itself; yourself, formal)

si (themselves; yourselves, formal)

To see how reflexive pronouns work with verbs, see a sample conjugation of lavarsi (to wash oneself) in the table below.

CONJUGATION OF THE VERB LAVARSI (TO WASH ONESELF)

PERSON

SINGULAR

PLURAL

I

(io) mi lavo

(noi) ci laviamo

II

(tu) ti lavi

(voi) vi lavate

III

(lui, lei, Lei) si lava

(loro, Loro) si lavano

Just like direct object pronouns, reflexive pronouns are placed before a conjugated verb or attached to the infinitive. Note that the reflexive pronoun agrees with the subject even when attached to the infinitive:

Mi alzo. (I'm getting up.)

Voglio alzarmi./Mi voglio alzare. (I want to get up.)

Mi, ti, si, and vi may drop the i before another vowel or an h and replace it with an apostrophe. Ci may drop the i only before another i or an e:

Voi v'arrabbiate facilmente. (You get angry easily.)

I ragazzi s'alzano alle sette. (The boys woke up at seven o'clock.)

A casa, m'annoio. (At home, I get bored.)

For a list of common reflexive verbs in Italian, see the following table.

COMMON REFLEXIVE VERBS

accorgersi (di)

to notice

addormentarsi

to fall asleep

alzarsi

to get up

arrabbiarsi

to get angry

chiamarsi

to be named

coprirsi

to cover oneself

divertirsi

to have fun, to enjoy oneself

farsi il bagno

to bathe oneself

farsi la doccia

to take a shower

farsi male

to get hurt, hurt oneself

innamorarsi (di)

to fall in love with

lavarsi

to wash oneself

laurearsi

to graduate

mettersi

to put (clothing) on

pettinarsi

to comb one's hair

radersi

to shave

sbarbarsi

to shave

sedersi

to sit down

sentirsi

to feel

spogliarsi

to undress

sposarsi (con)

to get married

svegliarsi

to wake up

vestirsi

to get dressed

Remember that some reflexive verbs can be used nonreflexively—without the reflexive pronouns. In this case, their meaning changes:

Tu ti alzi. (You get up.)

Tu alzi la sedia. (You lift the chair.)


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