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葡萄牙语词汇简介

2013-11-08 23:23:35  来源: 葡萄牙语 
葡萄牙语来自罗曼语系,大多数词汇来自拉丁语。不过,其他语言亦左右了葡萄牙语发展。

前罗马帝国已有字词
Very few traces of the native (Lusitanians、Conii、或Calicians) or pre-Roman settlers like the Phoenicians, Carthaginians or Celts lexicon persist in the language, but there are some exceptions, most are unconfirmed.多数葡萄牙地区有古罗马名字,例如是布拉加、科布英拉以及河流Minho和Tamega。

伊比利亚:

Abobora (南瓜)
Bezerro (year-old calf)
Louca (爪)
Manteiga (牛油)
Sapo (青蛙)
凯尔特:

Cabana (小屋)
Cama (床)
Camisa (衬衫)
Carvalho(橡树)
Cerveja (啤酒)
Touca (头饰)
腓尼基语:

Malha (网状物)
Mapa (地图)
Saco (袋)

拉丁语
Portuguese, both in morphology and syntax, represents an organic transformation of Latin without the direct intervention of any foreign language.发音、语法及语形,由拉丁语所影响。wWW.dBFEi.CoM接近九成的语源是来自罗马。部份受到罗马帝国帝国影响而改变。Since Portuguese was reinfluenced by it (reinfluence represented with 1), many original words are still familiar to Portuguese speakers.

N.B.: 在以下的拉丁语例子,全部使用大阶。下列例子V字以U发音,而C以/k/发音,所以CENTV 发音是 /kentu/ (the derived Cento in Portuguese is pronunced as /se~tu/)。

Nasalization — A vowel before [m] and [n] has a tendency to become a nasal vowel, this occurs in many languages. In the case of Portuguese, it happened between the sixth and seventh centuries. This change sharply distinguishes Portuguese from Spanish, in which it did not occur.

LVNA > l[ũ]a > Lua (月亮).
Palatalization — Another assimilation occurs before the high vowels [i] and [e], or near the semi-vowel, or palatal [j].

CENTV > [tj]ento > [ts]ento > cento, (hundred)
FACERE > fa[tj]ere > fa[ts]er > fa[dz]er > fazer, (to do)
A more ancient evolution was FORTIA > for[ts]a > forca (strength)
Elision — Simultaneous influence in a consonant by vowels, occurring a sintagmatic chain.

DOLORE > door > dor (pain) — dolorido¹ (in pain)
BONV > boo > bom, (good)
ANELLV > aelo > elo (Ring) — Anel¹ (hand ring)
Voicing — some consonants did not disappear but rather evolved:

MUTV > mudo (deaf)
LACV > lago (lake)
FABA > fava (broadbean)
Simplification of consonant clusters, especially doubled vowels, occurred:

GVTTA > gota (drop)
PECCARE > pecar (to sin)
Dissimilation — Modification of a sound by the influence of neighbouring sounds.

Dissimilation between vowels:
LOCVSTA > lagosta (lobster)
CAMPANA > campaa > campa (tomb)
Dissimilation between consonants:
MEMORARE > nembrar > lembrar (to remember) — Memorizar¹ (to memorize)
ANIMA > alma (soul) — Animado¹ (livened up)
LOCALE > logar > lugar (place) — local¹ (place)
Some other alterations were semi-vowel metathesis: PRIMARIV becomes primeiro (Eng. first); consonant metathesis in [l] and [r] are rare in Portuguese (e.g. TENEBRAS > teevras > trevas, Eng. darkness); and epenthesis, where there is not a total assimilation by adding new sounds. Such as for wine: Vulgar Latin: VINO, medieval Portuguese Vi~o, Modern Portuguese (since 14th or 15th centuries): Vinho. However, the sound of medieval Portuguese is still alive in some Portuguese dialects of Brazil and Sao Tome and Principe. Another specially relevant shift was the loss of the intervocalic /l/ in a very large set of words, already described in the list above as an example of "elision" → e.g: SALIRE > sair; COLARE > coar; NOTVLA > nodoa, with the typical portuguese voicing of /t/ in /d/ (AMATVS > amado). Fewer words remaned unchanged, such as Taberna (tavern).

日耳曼语族
日耳曼对葡语影响限制于军事以及战争用的服装。此亦影响了地名如Ermesinde及Esposende,当中 sinde及sende 是由日耳曼语族中的"sinths" (军事侦察)借代。

Barao (baron) from Germanic baro
Ganhar (胜利) from Germanic waidanjan
Guerra (战争) from Gothic *wirro
Roubar (to rob) from Germanic raubon
Saga (传说) from Gothic saega

来自阿拉伯语
约有1000个借用词。古葡语时代约占25%,现时被希腊语、拉丁语及其他语言所影响。

Alcova (壁龛) from alkubba
Aldeia (村庄) from aldaya
Alface (lettuce) from alkhass
Algarismo (algarism, number) from alkarizmi
Almirante (admiral) from amir + ar-rahl
Almofada (座塾) from almukhadda
Ambar (琥珀) from anbar
Armazem (货仓) from almahazan (see "magazine")
Arroz (米) from arruz (从希腊语oryza借代)
Azeite (olive oil) from azzait
Garrafa (瓶) from garrafa (see "caraff")
Girafa (长颈鹿) from zurafa
Jasmim (jasmin) from Persian jasamin
Jarra (jar) from jarra
Xadrez (国际象棋) from shatranj (loan from Sanscrit chaturanga)
Xerife (sheriff) from sharif

来自亚洲、南英洲及非常的词语
当葡萄牙帝国扩张时,亦发现很多新事物。很多巴西、安哥拉及莫桑比克地名及当地动物名称与班图语族相同。

Asian:

Catana (短弯刀) 来自日语的“刀”。
Cha (茶),来自中文的“茶”
Corja (暴民) 来自马来语korchchu
Ramarrao (routinous sound)来自印度语Rama-Rama
Manga (芒果)来自马来语mangga
美州原住民:

Ananas (一个波萝品种) from Tupi-Guarani nana
Abacaxi (另一个波萝品种) from Tupi iba + cati
Jaguar (美洲豹) from Tupi-Guarani jaguara
Tatu (犰狳) from Guarani tatu
Tucano (巨嘴鸟) from Guarani tucan
泛萨哈拉沙漠非洲语言:

Banana (香蕉) from Wolof
Bungular (跳舞如非洲巫师) from Kimbundu kubungula
Chimpanze (大猩猩)来自班图语
Cabiri (细少家畜动物) from Kimbundu kabiribiri
Cafune (affections made in the head) from Kimbundu kifumate

书写系统
主条目:葡萄牙语字母
葡萄牙语使用26个拉丁字母。当中K、W及Y只适用于非葡萄牙语原创词语如darwinismo (达尔文主义). It uses c and acute, grave, circumflex and tilde accents over vowels, as well as, in some forms and only in Brazil, diaeresis on a U as in linguistica (语言学,其余葡语圈人士使用linguistica)。

书写差异
在葡语正写法未达成协议之前,葡语一直保持有两种不同的书写变体,就是以葡萄牙当地为正统的欧洲及非洲葡语(Padroes)及巴西葡语。

欧洲葡语和巴西葡语在语汇、发音及语法有不同差异,特别是流行用语,葡萄牙比巴西差别更大,但比美式英语及英式英语差别较少。这种分别,主要在于欧非葡语的拼法还保留了不少原拉丁文字根的痕迹,但巴西葡语则纯綷从发音出发。

一些显见于词典的两种方言的区别并没有真正的区别。在巴西,地毯这个单词的普遍书写形式为“tapete”,在葡萄牙被写为“alcatifa”。然而,葡萄牙的一些方言区使用“tapete”这个形式,而在巴西的一些区域也使用“alcatifa”这个形式。除了一些新的词语外,这样的词语使用方式在几乎所有这样的显见的区别中运用,又如在巴西“onibus”就是葡萄牙“汽车”(autocarro)的写法。

葡萄牙/非洲 巴西 中文翻译
accao acao 动作
contracto contrato 接触
direccao direcao 方向
electrico eletrico 电力
optimo otimo 伟大
在巴西,第一个"c" 是"cc"、"cc"或"ct"及"p"如"pc"、 "pc" 或 "pt" 是葡语言未能发音而培养戈成能够说话,是由拉丁语遗留下来。

另外特别强调这两点:

发音不同。Brazil in words such as "Antonio" (Anthony) or "anonimo" (anonimous) uses close vowels, where Portugal and Africa uses open ones, "Antonio" or "anonimo", respectively. In the case of Africa, it is mostly due that the European Portuguese is preferred standard.
容易阅读。 由于"qu"在葡萄牙语有两个读音分别"ku"和"k",巴西葡语将它简单化,使用。分音符举例说"cinquenta"巴西会写成"cinquenta"。
A Spelling Reform (Port. Reforma Ortografica), written in 1990, will create an International Portuguese Standard, and it was ratified by Brazil, Cape Verde and Portugal. East Timor, not an original subscriber, will ratify shortly along with Guinea-Bissau. East Timor was the biggest supporter for a fast implementation and pressured CPLP. The agreement's Implementation date is not yet set.

At first, the Agreement established that its entrance into practice would only occur when all the countries of the CPLP had ratified it. But the African countries of Portuguese language have not ratified, possibly due to problems in implementing it. In the CPLP’s summit of 26–27 July 2004, an adjustment will prompt implementation in Brazil, Cape Verde and Portugal and its use can also be done in the other countries. The agreement will eliminate most "c" when "cc", "cc" or "ct"; and "p" when "pc", "pc" or "pt" from European Portuguese, the dieresis and accent marks in words ending in "eia" in Brazil and added some new minor spelling rules. And will accept dual accentuation in words like anonimo or anonimo, now depending on a person's accent.

另外亦将会有此词语加入新的字词。
From:http://www.dbfei.com/Article/putaoyayu/201311/8146.html
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