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荷兰语语音入门

2013-11-07 23:38:16  来源: 荷兰语 

我爱小语种学习网为大家整理荷兰语学习知识,荷兰语语音入门。

语音入门
I. 元音和辅音
单元音: a, e, i, o, u, y
复合元音: au, ei, eu, eeu, ie, ij, oe, ooi, ou, ui
单辅音: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, z, ch, ds, ng, ts, th
复合辅音: dr, tr, sch, nk
II. 元音读音
1.单元音字母在重读开音节(以元音结尾的音节)中发长音(即字母本身音),
eg: ga(去go),单元音字母a在开音节中发字母本身音/a:/
Lezen(阅读read),第一个音节le重读而且是开音节,单元音字母e发字母本身音/ei/
2.单元音字母在闭音节(以辅音结尾的音节)中发相应于字母本身音的短音,
eg: lid(成员limb/member), 单元音字母i在闭音节中发字母本身音/i/
wet(法律law), 单元音字母e在闭音节中发短音/e/
3.两个重叠的单元音字母在闭音节中发长音,
eg: baas(老板boss), 两个单元音字母a重叠,发作字母本身音/a:/
been(腿bone/leg),两个单元音字母e重叠,发作字母本身音/ei/
4.复合元音只有长音,在开音节和闭音节中发音一般不变,
eg: buiten(外面outside/beyond)和 tuin(花园garden)中的ui发音相同,不受开音节和闭音节的影响
5.单元音及少数复合元音在非重读音节中长发作轻音/ə/,
eg: vochtig(潮湿的moist/wet)中的i和begin(开始begin)中的e和 lelijk(丑陋的ugly)中的ij都发作/ə/
6.元音y一般只出现在外来词中,读作长音/i:/或短音/i/
eg: baby (婴儿baby)和systeem(系统system)
7.复合元音au和ou的发音相同,都读作/au/,类似于汉语"傲"的发音
8.复合元音ei和ij的发音相同,类似于汉语"爱"的发音
III. 辅音读音
1.c 一般读作/k/,
eg: contact(联系contact),和cultuur(文化culture)等
c在元音e, i, ij和y前时发作/s/,
eg: centrum(中心centre), incident(事件incident), cijfer(数字figure/cipher) 和cynisch(嘲讽的cynical)
2.浊辅音d出现在词尾时发成清辅音t,
eg: hond(狗dog)应读作/hont/
3.r出现在元音前时一般发成弹舌音,
eg: rood(红色red),和rijst(米rice)
r出现在音节末尾时一般只需要发卷舌音(类似儿化音),
eg: kort(短的short),和pers(媒体press)
4.荷兰语中的w与英语中的v相似,
eg: wet(法律law)的读音是/vet/而不是/wet/
5.荷兰语中的v的读音与f相似,但f发音时不需要震动声带,而v是浊辅音,发音时需要震动声带
6.ch在外来词中发作/x/和/ ∫ /,在外来词特别是法语词中ch一般发作/ ∫ /
eg: China(中国China), chocolade(巧克力chocolate)
其他情况下ch一般发作/x/,
eg: macht(权力power/might) ,wachten(等候wait)
ch在极少数情况下也发作/k/,
eg: christendom(基督教Christianity)
7.sch出现在词尾时一般发作/s/, .
eg: fantastisch(美妙的fantastic) 和idyllisch(田园气息的idealistic(al))
sch在其他情况下一般发作/sx/,
eg: scheiden(分开seperate/part), schrijven(写write)
8.ng发作后鼻音/ ŋ /,
eg: ring (环ring)和gang(走廊walk/corridor)
9.nk的发音为/ ŋk/,
eg: bank (银行bench)和dank(感谢thank)
10.t, p, k这三个清辅音出现在s后发作/d/, /b/, /g/,
eg: stok(棍棒stick)音/sdok/, spek(熏肉bacon)音/sbek/, skelet(骨架skeleton)音/sgə'let/
st, sp, sk出现在词尾时发音不变
eg: feest(节庆feast/festival)中的t不必读作d
IV. 发音练习
a 长音 water vader, dader, maat, laat
water, father, author/doer, measure, late
短音 dag, nacht, lam, dam, tand
day, night, lamb, dam, tooth
e 长音 mening, leven, delen, heet, weet
opinion, live/life, devide, hot, know
短音 wet, met, weg, net, zeg
law, with, way, net/neat, say/tell
eer meer, veer, keer, wanneer
more, feather/ferry, turn/time, when
i 长音 januari, februari
January, February
短音 wit, lid, in, dit, is
white, limb/member, in, this
o 长音 wonen, bogen, mode, loon, telefoon
live, boast/glory in, mode/fashion, weges/pay, telephone
短音 op, lot, onder, omlaag, ons
on, fate/lot, under, below/down, us/our
u 长音 muziek, ruzie
music, quarrel
短音 punt, kunst, kussen, munt, dun
point, art, kiss, coin/money, thin/small
uur duur, muur, buur, vuur
duration/dear, wall, neighbour, fire
y baby, cynisch, systeem, symbool, dynastie
baby, cynical, system, symbol, dynasty
au nauw, blauw, mauw, gauw, dauw
narrow, blue, mew, quick, dew
ei eigen, leiden, meid, weiden, neiging
own, lead/guide, maid, feed/graze, incline/bend
eu leuk, keuken, meubel, jeugd, peuk
funny, kitchen/cooking, furniture, youth, stub/end
eur deur, keur, geur, beurt
door, choice, smell/odour, turn
eeu leeuw, sneeuw, geeuw
lion, snow, yawn
ie niet, fiets, bieden, tien, dienst
not, bibycle, bid, ten, service
ij ijs, wijs, bij, altijd, blijven
ice, wise, bee/by, always, remain
oe boek, hoed, doek, moe, woedend
book, hat, choth, tired, furious
ooi nooit, gooi, mooi, voltooid
never, cast/throw, pretty, perfect tense
ou oud, mouw, koud, goud, fout
old, sleeve, cold, gold, fault
ui huis, duim, huilen, uit, muit
house/home, thumb, cry, from/out of, mutiny/rebel
b bad, bouw, bed, buiten, boven
bath, building, bed, outside, above
c concept, concert, concessie, cycloon, cilinder
concept, concert, concessie, cyclops, cylinder
d donderdag, dam, dijk, duister, dood
Thursday, dam, dike, dark, dead
f feest, fabriek, faciliteit, feit, folie
feast, factory, facility, fact, foil
g goed, god, goud, dag, vaag
good, god, gold, day, vague
h hond, heel, haven, heilig, hout
dog, whole, harbour, holy, wood
j ja, jij, jong, juist, jager
yes, you, young, exact, hunter
k kamer, koning, koffie, politiek, geluk
room, king, coffee, politic(al), happiness
l liga, les, leeg, maaltijd, formeel
league, lesson, empty, (hot) meal, formal
m mond, map, minuut, ham, geheim
mouth, folder, minute, ham, sure/certain
n net, niet, nicht, won, dan
net, not, niece, won, then
p pagina, papier, pinda, Spaans, lamp
page, paper, peanut, Spanish, lamp
r rijden, roest, broer, motor, vloer
ride, roost/rust, brother, motor, floor
s saai, seconde, suiker, monster, prijs
serge, second, sugar, monster, price
t tabak, tijger, steun, oost, vet
tobacco, tiger, support, east, floor
v vos, vijf, vier, verf, vuist
fox, five, four, paint, fist
w wapen, was, wijs, weer, week
weapon, wash, way/wise, defence/weather/again, week
x taxi, expres, examen, exoticsh
taxi, on purpose, exam, exotic
z zaad, zege, zalig, zijde, zelf
seed, victory, blessed, side/silk, self
ch chef, Chinese, toch, wacht, chaos
chief, Chinese, yet, wacht, chaos
ds Nederlands, buitenlands, loods
Netherlands/Dutch, foreign country, shed
ng bang, lang, ding, vinger, honger
afraid, long, thing, finger, hunger
ts fiets, mits, voorwaarts, arts, plaats
bicycle, provided, forward, physician
th thee, theater, thans, thema, thuis
tea, theatre, now, theme, at home
dr droog, draad, dreiging, drempel, drijven
dry, thread, threat, threshold, float/swim/drive
tr trouw, traan, traject, trein, transport
faithful/true, tear, way, train, transport
sch schade, schild, schroef, medisch, optimistisch
damage, shield, screw, medical, optimistic(al)
nk donker, honk, bank, plank, dank
dark, home/base, bank, plank, thank
ssie commissie, discussie, admissie, immissie
committee, discussion, admission, immission
tie politie, emotie, decoratie, informatie
police, emotion, decoration, information


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